Khartoum with an estimated 5 million residents in 2008  is considered to be a major centre for medical facilities, also attracting patients from across the country. introduction for preventing future CRS cases in the country. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Congenital rubella syndrome, Eye defects, Oral fluid, Dried blood spot, Sudan Background Rubella (German measles) is a common febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. Rubella occurs mostly during childhood usually as a mild or even asymptomatic infection . However, infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can lead to a spectrum of birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) including congenital eye defects, deafness, congenital heart diseases and mental retardation . CRS can be prevented through rubella vaccination available since 1969 . The incidence of CRS has been reduced in many developed countries by effective MRK-016 vaccination programs . Effective rubella vaccination programs as well as high-quality surveillance of rash/fever diseases have been implemented in the Americas and resulted in rubella and CRS elimination in those countries since 2010 [5,6]. However, rubella vaccination has not yet been introduced in many developing countries . The burden of CRS in these countries is underestimated and few reports documenting the incidence of CRS are available. In 2009 2009, only 165 CRS cases were reported worldwide with the majority being from the World Health Organization (WHO) African and Eastern Mediterranean regions . In Sudan, national surveillance for measles and rubella was established in 2006. However, neither routine CRS surveillance nor rubella vaccination is available and data on CRS are inadequate. We documented the occurrence of CRS in Sudan for the first time in 2010 2010  and reports about rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women are available from some Sudanese states including Khartoum State  and West Sudan . The present study aimed to identify CRS cases among Sudanese infants presented at different hospitals in Khartoum to obtain more information about the CRS situation in Sudan. These data may help public health authorities to design appropriate CRS prevention strategies. Methods Study settings This cross-sectional study MRK-016 Rabbit Polyclonal to TTF2 was conducted between February and September 2010 to identify CRS cases among infants presented to five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan. Khartoum with an estimated 5 million residents in 2008  is considered to be a major centre for medical facilities, also attracting patients from across the country. The hospitals selected for the present study (two ophthalmology hospitals, two paediatrics hospitals and a paediatrics echocardiography unit) are major specialised hospitals that provide paediatric services for a large number of Sudanese children. Study participants The initial selection of the study subjects was based on the WHO case definitions  and both suspected and clinically-confirmed CRS cases were included (Table?1). Physicians were provided with the study inclusion/exclusion criteria before the start of the study. A total of 98 infants aged up to 12?months who matched these case definitions MRK-016 were recruited during the study MRK-016 period and their samples were tested for laboratory confirmation. The clinical examination of these cases was done by qualified physicians according to the specialty of the hospital. As hearing loss was not evaluated in this study, we included infants who presented either with congenital eye defects, heart defects or both. Children aged more than 12?months or presenting with congenital defects not compatible with the CRS case definition were excluded. At the ophthalmology hospitals and the echocardiography unit all infants matching the inclusion criteria and presenting during the 7-months study period were included. For the paediatrics hospitals the research team was called upon by hospital staff when patients matching the inclusion criteria were presented. Clinical symptoms compatible with CRS detected during medical examination, extracted from the infants medical records or MRK-016 described by their parents were recorded. Table 1 WHO case definitions for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and congenital rubella infection (CRI) * thead valign=”top” th align=”left” valign=”middle” rowspan=”1″ colspan=”1″ Case definition /th th align=”left” valign=”middle” rowspan=”1″ colspan=”1″ Description /th /thead Suspected CRS case hr / Any infant less than one year.