Respiratory system structure itself is usually highly complex

Respiratory system structure itself is usually highly complex. comparative respiratory anatomy and physiology as well as the diseases affecting all components of the respiratory system of nonhuman primates. Introduction The respiratory system is one of the most commonly affected systems in reports Amyloid b-Peptide (1-42) (human) describing nonhuman primate disease, pathology, and/or clinical management. Such general papers include data pertaining to prosimians (Kohn and Haines, 1982, Brockman et al., 1988, Feeser and White, 1992), New Amyloid b-Peptide (1-42) (human) World primates (Nelson et al., 1966, Deinhardt et al., 1967, Chapman et al., 1973, Chalmers et al., 1983, Lehner, 1984, Richter, 1984, Tucker, 1984, Abee, 1985, Kalter, 1985, Gozalo and Montoya, 1990, Gozalo and Montoya, 1992, Baer, 1994, Potkay, 1992, Valverde et al., 1993, Weller, 1994), Old World primates (Keeling and Wolf, 1975, Kim and Kalter, 1975a, Schmidt, 1978, Ensley, 1981, Henrickson, 1984, Adang et al., 1987, Courtenay, 1988, Munson and Montali, 1990, Janssen, 1993), or primates in general (Lapin and Yakovleva, 1963; Fiennes and Dzhikidze, 1972a, Dzhikidze and Yakovleva, 1972b; Martin, 1978, Benirschke, 1983, Griner, 1983, Padovan and Cantrell, Amyloid b-Peptide (1-42) (human) 1983, Wallach and Boever, 1983, Schmidt et al., 1986, Lowenstine, 2003). TABLE 9.1, TABLE 9.2 summarize the magnitude and support the importance of respiratory disease in nonhuman primates. Respiratory system structure itself is usually highly complex. It has evolved to meet a variety of physiologic demands in which the basic physical requirement is usually intimate contact between large Rabbit Polyclonal to AP-2 volumes of air and blood, which brings with it a high potential for exposure to a myriad of potentially damaging agents carried in the air or blood. An understanding of general respiratory system structure, function, and disease, as well as associated diagnostic approaches and reported respiratory problems in nonhuman primates, is essential for any individual involved in primate medicine. TABLE 9.1 Differential Diagnosis of Primate Respiratory Disease: General Diseases/Syndromes (synonyms other Gram-negative and Gram- positive enteric organismsNasal discharge, intermittent cough, rapid, shallow breathing patternsCervical swelling, halitosis, lethargy, anorexiaOwl monkeys, pig- tail macaques, baboons, chimpanzees, pygmy chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutansAspiration and secondary pneumoniaAsthma(1) Extrinsic asthma: extrinsic antigen (2) Intrinsic asthma: respiratory tract infection and inhaled irritantsDyspnea, coughing, and wheezing; nonproductive cough or exertional dyspneaNone noted in published reports(Very low pathogenicity in African species (3) Zoonotic potential: rare reports of human seroconversion; no associated human disease reported, closely related to HIV-2var. sp.NocardiosisProductive coughFeverMacaques, orangutans(1) Indicators associated with pulmonary nocardiosis are often nonspecific and even subclinical until late in the disease course (2) Zoonotic potential: not transmitted between individual animals or humans. Can be found as a primary infection, but often is usually noted as an apparent opportunistor sp.CysticercosisUsually incidental findings at necropsyNot reportedRed-ruffed lemurs, macaquesShould be included in the differential diagnosis for space-occupying pulmonary lesionssp.TetyrathyridiosisUsually incidental findings at necropsyNot reportedCynomolgus monkeysShould be Amyloid b-Peptide (1-42) (human) included in the differential diagnosis for space-occupying lesionssp. sp.Pulmonary nematodiasisGenerally clinically inapparent, occasional coughing, pulmonary hemorrhageNot reportedMarmosets, squirrel monkeys, cebus monkeys, howler monkeys, cynomolgus monkeysMore common in wild-caught primatessp. sp.Pulmonary acariasisUsually subclinical, severe infections may have associated cough and dyspneaNot reportedWoolly monkeys, howler monkeys, macaques, douc langurs, proboscis monkeys, chimpanzees(1) Most severe in the Asian colobine monkeys (2) Complications of lung mite infection include pneumothorax and pulmonary arteritissp.Nasal acariasisNot reportedNot reportedRhesus monkeys, baboons, orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas Open in a separate window Respiratory System Structure and Function An overview of general respiratory system structure and function can provide a foundation for understanding respiratory vulnerability and response to injury, as well as associated diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Good resources can be found in a comparative lung anatomy monograph by Parent (1992) and in pathology texts (Stookey and Moe, 1978, Dungworth, 1993, Caswell and Williams, Amyloid b-Peptide (1-42) (human) 2007, Husain, 2010, Lingen, 2010), including a primate pathology monograph (Scott, 1992b). Additional sources include papers by Boatman et al. (1979) and Boyden (1976). Structural and Functional.